183 TRILLION TO 1 CHANCE
HOW THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF ATOMS PLUGSINTO THE PRIME NUMBER SEQUENCE.
Prime Numbers
Prime numbers have been studied for a millennia but what are they are why do they appear everywhere? 
Gaps in Primes
Maths deals mainly with the difference in numbers but what about the gaps between numbers? 
Atoms
The electron configuration of atoms 'slots' between the prime numbers  this shouldn't be possible. So why do they? 
Prime Number and Electron Configuration of Atoms
IF PRIMES WERE A LOTTERY
What’s the chance that out of the first 83 numbers there are 23 primes at these numbers
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83 and 89.
( with 59 composites or nonprime numbers and 1 which is neither prime nor composite ).
If this was a prime lottery and we’re going to call 23 numbers and you need to get these 23 correct..
there’s no chance you’ll win  well 1 in 183 British Trillion (million million million).
That’s the maths out the way.
GCSE CHEMISTRY  ATOM
Now if you left science at 16 you’ll think an atom looks like this.
You might remember the electron configuration being 2, 8 , 18, 32, 32, 18, 8
To teach chemistry from 11  18 I designed a wall sized periodic table which, showed more easily how the electrons moved around…
THE ELECTRONS GIVE US A WINDOW TO THE QUANTUM WORLD.
You can really see them moving around…
ALevel & undergraduate chemistry  atom
If you left chemistry at 18 you would now know that these electrons aren’t quiet flying around the outside but are in ‘probability’ shells with labels like s, p and d…
and now the electron configurations is written like this…
Which might be easier to decode if I colour it in…
s orbitals have 1 pair of electrons, p orbitals have 3 pairs of electrons and d orbitals have 5 pairs of electrons…
and these electron pairs are spinning… up and down or ↿⇂
So we can write this…
COMPLICATED?
LET’S GET A BETTER EXPLANATION FROM DAVID TONG PROFESSOR OF
THEORETICAL PHYSICS CAMBRIDGE, UK
"The first modern picture that we had of what the universe is made of is the Periodic Table of Elements."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"JJ Thomson discovered the electron and announced it in 1897 at the Royal Institute."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"Everything we see in the Universe is made from the same 3 particles, arranged differently and repeated over and over again."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"For 2,500 years we've accepted the concept of building blocks constructing everything in the universe."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"It's a comforting picture we teach it to our children in school and even to undergraduates at University.
But there's a problem with it...
IT'S A LIE. "
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"IT'S A WHITE LIE.
It's a white lie we tell our children because we don't want to expose them to the difficult and horrible truth too early on...
It makes it easier to learn if you believe that particles are the fundamental building blocks of the universe.
BUT IT'S SIMPLY NOT TRUE."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"The very best theories in Physics DON'T rely on particles at all."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"The fundamental building blocks of nature are not particles BUT much more nebulous and abstract...
The building blocks of nature are fluid, spread out throughout the entire universe, rippling in strange and interesting ways."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"The building blocks of the universe, are called FIELDS."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"A field is something that is spread throughout the universe, it takes a particular value at every point in space and that value can change in time."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"This is not a new idea it dates back 200 years... "
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"Faraday envisaged was threaded throughout everywhere in space was these objects called the electric and magnetic fields."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"One of the most revolutionary abstract ideas in the history of science  Micheal Faraday's Electric and Magnetic Field Theory."
^{David Tong, Professor of Theoretical Physics Fellow of Trinity College, Royal Institute Lecture  Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe.}
"One of the most revolutionary abstract ideas in the history of science…"
QUANTUM WAVES.
Everything is made up of fields…
WHAT DO PRIMES HAVE TO DO WITH ALL THIS?
Let’s quickly revisit our primes and composite numbers…
Let’s look at the numbers in a new way.
Let’s look at the number of composite numbers between the prime numbers.
1 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 5 , 1 , 5…
The primes are on the red circles and the composite numbers are between the red circles.
Where have we seen this sequence before?
1 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 5 , 1 , 5…
ELECTRONS EXIST IN PAIRS OF 1, 3 AND 5
THE ELECTRONS HAVE OPPOSITE SPINS.
We now know that electrons are in fact fields or waves…
How do these Quantum Electron Waves (QEW) fit into the prime number sequence?
The Electron Configuration of Atoms, slots into the Prime Number Sequence.
Up Spin
The Electron Configuration of Atoms, slots into the Prime Number Sequence.
Down Spin
Add in some QEW’s (Quantum Electron Waves) and some of the elements from the Periodic Table…
The future is mapped out, now all we need do is go...
Find out more about prime numbers & the electron configuration
& about the author Dan King here









